Speculations, 2014


Lebbeus Woods distinguishes between the hierarchical and the heterarchical, between, that is, the monumental, authoritative, totalizing, systematic, fixed and largely coercive architectural conventions and expressions detached from ordinary, everyday human experience, on the one hand, and the continually shifting, fluid, and historically and materially bound cultural practices of a people, on the other. Woods resists the imposition of a “degraded pattern” to replace complex and intimate ones predating the leveling violence of war. Architecture, for Woods, proceeds from the bottom up, and not from the top down. (War and Architecture 6-9)